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  1. by Lao Tzu
  2. Tao Te Ching - Wikipedia
  3. Introduction to Laozi’s ‘Daodejing’ – Part 1

Clay is fashioned into vessels; but it is on their empty hollowness, that their use depends. The door and windows are cut out from the walls to form an apartment; but it is on the empty space within , that its use depends. Therefore, what has a positive existence serves for profitable adaptation, and what has not that for actual usefulness. The repression of the desires Colour's five hues from the eyes their sight will take; Music's five notes the ears as deaf can make; The flavours five deprive the mouth of taste; The chariot course, and the wild hunting waste Make mad the mind; and objects rare and strange, Sought for, men's conduct will to evil change.

by Lao Tzu

Therefore the sage seeks to satisfy the craving of the belly, and not the insatiable longing of the eyes. He puts from him the latter, and prefers to seek the former. Loathing shame Favour and disgrace would seem equally to be feared; honour and great calamity, to be regarded as personal conditions of the same kind.

What is meant by speaking thus of favour and disgrace? Disgrace is being in a low position after the enjoyment of favour. The getting that favour leads to the apprehension of losing it , and the losing it leads to the fear of still greater calamity - this is what is meant by saying that favour and disgrace would seem equally to be feared.

And what is meant by saying that honour and great calamity are to be similarly regarded as personal conditions? What makes me liable to great calamity is my having the body which I call myself ; if I had not the body, what great calamity could come to me? Therefore he who would administer the kingdom, honouring it as he honours his own person, may be employed to govern it, and he who would administer it with the love which he bears to his own person may be entrusted with it.

The manifestation of the mystery We look at it, and we do not see it, and we name it 'the Equable.


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Its upper part is not bright, and its lower part is not obscure. Ceaseless in its action, it yet cannot be named, and then it again returns and becomes nothing.

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This is called the Form of the Formless, and the Semblance of the Invisible; this is called the Fleeting and Indeterminable. We meet it and do not see its Front; we follow it, and do not see its Back. When we can lay hold of the Dao of old to direct the things of the present day, and are able to know it as it was of old in the beginning, this is called unwinding the clue of Dao.

Tao Te Ching - Wikipedia

The exhibition of the qualities of the Dao The skilful masters of the Dao in old times, with a subtle and exquisite penetration, comprehended its mysteries, and were deep also so as to elude men's knowledge. As they were thus beyond men's knowledge, I will make an effort to describe of what sort they appeared to be. Shrinking looked they like those who wade through a stream in winter; irresolute like those who are afraid of all around them; grave like a guest in awe of his host ; evanescent like ice that is melting away; unpretentious like wood that has not been fashioned into anything; vacant like a valley, and dull like muddy water.

Who can make the muddy water clear? Let it be still, and it will gradually become clear. Who can secure the condition of rest? Let movement go on, and the condition of rest will gradually arise. They who preserve this method of the Dao do not wish to be full of themselves. It is through their not being full of themselves that they can afford to seem worn and not appear new and complete. Returning to the root The state of vacancy should be brought to the utmost degree, and that of stillness guarded with unwearying vigour.

All things alike go through their processes of activity, and then we see them return to their original state. When things in the vegetable world have displayed their luxuriant growth, we see each of them return to its root. This returning to their root is what we call the state of stillness; and that stillness may be called a reporting that they have fulfilled their appointed end.

The report of that fulfilment is the regular, unchanging rule. To know that unchanging rule is to be intelligent; not to know it leads to wild movements and evil issues. The knowledge of that unchanging rule produces a grand capacity and forbearance, and that capacity and forbearance lead to a community of feeling with all things.

From this community of feeling comes a kingliness of character; and he who is king-like goes on to be heaven-like. In that likeness to heaven he possesses the Dao. Possessed of the Dao, he endures long; and to the end of his bodily life, is exempt from all danger of decay.

The unadulterated influence In the highest antiquity, the people did not know that there were their rulers. In the next age they loved them and praised them. In the next they feared them; in the next they despised them. Thus it was that when faith in the Dao was deficient in the rulers a want of faith in them ensued in the people. How irresolute did those earliest rulers appear, showing by their reticence the importance which they set upon their words!

Introduction to Laozi’s ‘Daodejing’ – Part 1

Their work was done and their undertakings were successful, while the people all said, 'We are as we are, of ourselves! The decay of manners When the Great Dao Way or Method ceased to be observed, benevolence and righteousness came into vogue. Then appeared wisdom and shrewdness, and there ensued great hypocrisy.

When harmony no longer prevailed throughout the six kinships, filial sons found their manifestation; when the states and clans fell into disorder, loyal ministers appeared. Returning to the unadulterated influence If we could renounce our sageness and discard our wisdom, it would be better for the people a hundredfold. If we could renounce our benevolence and discard our righteousness, the people would again become filial and kindly. If we could renounce our artful contrivances and discard our scheming for gain, there would be no thieves nor robbers.

Those three methods of government Thought olden ways in elegance did fail And made these names their want of worth to veil; But simple views, and courses plain and true Would selfish ends and many lusts eschew. Being different from ordinary men When we renounce learning we have no troubles.


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  • The ready 'yes,' and flattering 'yea;' Small is the difference they display. But mark their issues, good and ill; What space the gulf between shall fill? What all men fear is indeed to be feared; but how wide and without end is the range of questions asking to be discussed! The multitude of men look satisfied and pleased; as if enjoying a full banquet, as if mounted on a tower in spring.

    I alone seem listless and still, my desires having as yet given no indication of their presence. I am like an infant which has not yet smiled. I look dejected and forlorn, as if I had no home to go to. The multitude of men all have enough and to spare. I alone seem to have lost everything. My mind is that of a stupid man; I am in a state of chaos. Ordinary men look bright and intelligent, while I alone seem to be benighted.

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    They look full of discrimination, while I alone am dull and confused. I seem to be carried about as on the sea, drifting as if I had nowhere to rest. All men have their spheres of action, while I alone seem dull and incapable, like a rude borderer. Thus I alone am different from other men, but I value the nursing-mother the Dao. The empty heart, or the Dao in its operation The grandest forms of active force From Dao come, their only source. Who can of Dao the nature tell? Our sight it flies, our touch as well.